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General Introduction to Chongqing

Introduction  |  Location  |  History  | Geography  |  Population  |  Economy  | Transportation  | Climate  | Tourism | Sister Cities

Chongqing is highlighted on this map

Introduction

 
  • Chongqing is a modern city with more than 3,000 years history.
  • Chongqing is fourth municipality after Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin in China.
  • Chongqing has the largest area and population among these four municipalities in China.
  • Chongqing has an area of 82,400 square kilometers and it could be divided into 40 subdivisions.
  • The annual average temperature in Chongqing is 18C.
  • There are numerous ethnic groups residing in Chongqing, including Miao, Han and Tibetan.
  • The International Travel Festival is held in Chongqing every year from May through June.

Chongqing is called Yu for short. It is situated in the southeast of the Sichuan Basin and the confluence between the Yangtze River and the Jialing River. It is the largest and most densely populated municipality directly under the Central Government. Efforts are being made to turn Chongqing into a modern metropolis with the largest foreign market oriented industrial base in West China. On March 14, 1997, Chongqing was officially proclaimed the fourth municipality directly under the jurisdiction of the Central Government.

Chongqing abounds in biological resources, ore and waterpower as well as the Three Gorges tourist resources. Being the largest industrial and commercial center in southwest China, Chongqing boasts comprehensive industries of advanced iron and steel, chemicals, electric power, automobile manufacturing, machine-building, shipbuilding, construction materials, textiles, and foodstuff. Chongqing is also the land and water communication hub in southwest China. The port of Chongqing is the biggest in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River.

Known as a "Mountain City", Chongqing was constructed on the mountain slopes and along the riversides. It has a long history and numerous scenic spots and historic sites. Because the city is very hilly it is the only major metropolitan area in China without significant numbers of bicycles. It is renowned in particular for gardens with unique beauty. Famous tourist sites include the stone carvings in Dazu County, the Three Gorges scenery, the South Hot Spring Park, the North Hot Spring Park, and Red Crag Memorial Museum.

Chongqing is one one of the largest cities in the world and is the economic center; hub of waterways, land, and air transportation in Southwest China with busy rivers and highways radiating in all directions; and an inland river port with foreign trade in the west of China; an integrated industrial city with balance developed agriculture

Chongqing is also referred to as "Yu", the "Mountain City", the "River City"; the "Foggy City"; the "Furnace City"; the "Gateway to the West".

Location

Chongqing is located at the upper reaches of the Yangtze River - at the confluence of Yangtze River and Jialing River and at the joint of central China and the southwest China. Chongqing is situated between 10517' - 110 1' east longitude and 280' - 323' north latitude. Chongqing's neighboring areas are: Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, Hubei, Hunan, Guizhou, and Yunnan Provinces, and the Tibet Autonomous Region.

Chongqing measures 470km from east to west and 450km from north to south. Chongqing neighbors Hubei and Hunan in the east, and Guizhou in the south, it neighbors Sichuan in the west and Shanxi in the north. The terrain slopes down to the Yangtze River valley from south to north, and is therefore quite undulating. Chongqing is situated on the edge of the Yungui Plateau, with hills in the northwest and central areas. In the southeast are Dabashan and Wulingshan mountains. Major rivers are the Yangtze River, Jialing River, Wujiang River, Fujiang River, Qijiang River and Daninghe River. Located at the head of the reservoir behind the Three Gorges Dam, Chongqing is the starting-point of the development of the western provinces.

History

Chongqing is a famous cultural city with a history of 3,000 years and a glorious revolutionary tradition. It is the birthplace of Bayu culture. Towards the end of the Old Stone Age approximately 20,000-30,000 years ago, mankind began to live in Chongqing. In Shang Dynasty (1600-1027 or 1766-1122 BC) and Zhou Dynasty (1027 or 1022 - 221 BC) Ba people founded Kingdom Ba and made Chongqing their capital. Domain of Ba in its most flourishing period was "to Yufu (present Fengjie) in the east, to Dao in the west, to Hanzhong in the north and to Qianfu in the south". Original Chongqing was the center to juristic East Sichuan, South Shanxi, West Hubei, Northwest of Hunan and North Guizhou. In all dynasties since Qing Dynasty (1644-1911 AD) and Han this region was for most of the time a unified administrative region with Chongqing as the center. In the old times Chongqing was called Jiangzhou. Then it was called Bajun, Chuzhou, Yuzhou and Gongzhou. In 581 AD, Emperor Wendi of Sui Dynasty (581-618 AD) changed Chuzhou to Yuzhou, thus coming the short form Yu for Chongqing. In 1189 Emperor Guang Zhong of Sung Dynasty (960-1279 AD) was first conferred on prince and then ascended the throne. In 1102, the first year of the reign of Emperor Chongning of the Northern Sung Dynasty, it was renamed Gong Prefecture. Zhao Chun of the Southern Sung Dynasty (1127-1279) became prince of the Gong Prefecture and later became emperor. Zhao regarded his two ascensions as a double cause for celebration and changed the name of Gong Prefecture to Chongqing, or "Double Celebration."  Although protected by a wall since 250 BC, Chongqing was plundered during the rebellion of Zhang Xianzhong (Chang Hsien-chung) in the 1630s. When the wall was subsequently repaired, eight of the 17 gates were left closed on the advice of feng shui experts. In 1891, Chongqing became an open port. In 1929, Chongqing was formally made a city. During the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression (1937-1945), Chongqing was made an alternate capital after the fall of Nanjing, which was then the capital of the Kuomintang government. During this period, Chongqing developed into the center of politics, economy, and culture in China. When the Nationalist government returned to Nanjing, Chongqing remained a municipality directly under the central government. In the years following the founding of New China, Chongqing was the location of CPC Southwest Bureau and Southwest Civil & Military Commission, it was the political, economic and cultural center in the southwest and a city of municipality status. In 1954, Chongqing became a city under the jurisdiction of Sichuan provincial government. In 1983, Chongqing took the lead in experimenting on comprehensive economic structural reforms and was granted provincial jurisdiction over economy. Eight counties of Yongchuan merged into Chongqing. In 1992, Chongqing was made an open city along the Yangtze River. In 1994, Chongqing was designated as an experimental city at provincial level for the comprehensive reform of the marketing economic system. In September 1996, the Central Government approved Chongqing to administer Wanxian, Fuling and Qianjiang Region on behalf of the province. In 1997, Chongqing became the fourth municipality under the direct jurisdiction of the Central Government, the other three being Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin. Chongqing includes Chongqing City, Wanxian City, Fuling City, and Qianjiang Prefecture. It covers an area of 82,400 sq. km, 14% of Sichuan's total area, and has a population of 30.05 million, 27% of Sichuan's total.

Origin of name

chng ("again")
qng ("celebrate")
i.e. "double celebration"

For the city itself, it came into being three thousand years ago and got its name 800 years ago. On December 8, 1986, it was appointed one of the Historical and Cultural Cities of China by the State Council.

"Chongqing (pronounced as Ch'ung-ch'ing), also known as Chungking, is the largest city of the four municipalities directly under the central government (MDUCG) of China.

Chongqing's history extends back at least 3,000 years, endowing it with much historical and cultural significance. Traces of man's presence have been found from as far back as the end of the Old Stone Age 20,000 to 30,000 years ago. From the beginning of the Shang Dynasty (c. 16th century B.C.) to the close of the Warring States Period (221 B.C.), it was the capital of the state of Ba. From the Qin Dynasty through the Eastern Han Dynasty (221 B.C.-220 A.D.), it was a prefecture also known as Ba. During the Sui and Tang dynasties, (581-907 A.D.), it was known as the sub-prefecture of Yuzhou, hence its standard byname "Yu.'' Subsequently, during the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127 A.D.), it was renamed Gongzhou. In 1189, during the Southern Song Dynasty, Zhao Dun, later the Guangzong Emperor, was given the title Prince of Gong. Regarding this as an exceedingly joyous event, he upgraded its status to that of a prefecture and renamed it as "Chongqing'' or "redoubled celebration,'' the name it carries to this day.

The Ming and Qing dynasties (1368-1911) saw goods spin in and out of the city as merchants from the four corners gathered. In 1891 Chongqing became an open port and a customs house was established there. Shipping and trade and the financial and processing industries grew steadily more prosperous as the city came to link southwestern China and the upper reaches of the Yangtze River with the rest of the world. In 1929 Chongqing was formally declared a city. Following the outbreak of the War of Resistance Against Japan in 1937, the Kuomintang (KMT) moved the government from Nanjing to Chongqing. In 1939 the city was elevated to a municipality under the Executive Yuan. Beginning in 1940 it served as the wartime ``provisional capital'' for the KMT government, becoming China's political, economic, financial, commercial, transportation, cultural and diplomatic center. After the KMT government returned to the formerly occupied capital Nanjing in 1946, Chongqing returned to its status as a municipality under the Executive Yuan.

After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the Southwestern Sub-bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Southwestern Military and Political Commission were set up in Chongqing. The city was made a municipality directly under the central government and continued as the political, economic and cultural center of southwestern China. After the system whereby the nation was organized into large administrative zones was rescinded in 1954, Chongqing's status was changed to that of a city under the jurisdiction of Sichuan Province. In 1983 the central government decided to include Chongqing in the first group of cities where pilot reforms of the economic system could be tried out, its economic planning being directly supervised by the State Council. The state also gave the city provincial-level administrative powers over its economy and formally made it a foreign trade port. Since entering the 1990s China has been effecting its strategy of opening and developing the Yangtze River. Chongqing was listed as an open city. In September 1996, with the approval of the State Council, Sichuan passed administration over the cities of Wanxian and Fuling and Qianjiang Prefecture to Chongqing to govern on the province's behalf. In March 1997, the Fifth Session of the Eighth NPC discussed and approved a resolution rescinding Chongqing's then current status of city, declaring Chongqing a MDUCG.

Since its founding 3,000 years ago, Chongqing has been called Jiangzhou, Yuzhou, and Gongzhou, before getting its present name nearly 800 years ago. Since the Qin Dynasty (221 BC-206 BC), many dynasties have set up administrative institutions that have endowed the city with brilliant cultures. Perched beside the Yangtze, the "Golden River," Chongqing symbolizes Yangtze River civilizations and is the cradle of Bayu culture.

  • Since Chongqing was discovered about 3,000 years ago and before having its present name 800 years ago, it was originally named as Jiangzhou, Yuzhou and Gongzhou. Chongqing was the capital of the state of Ba, since the beginning of the Shang Dynasty (16th century B.C.) to the end of the Warring States Period (221 B.C.). Until it was destroyed by the State of Qin during 316 B.C., it was named as Jiangzhou. In 581-907 A.D., which is during Sui and Tang dynasties, Chongqing was renamed to Yuzhou.  From the Qin Dynasty through the Eastern Han Dynasty (221 B.C.-220 A.D.), it was a prefecture also known as Ba. Chongqing was renamed Gongzhou during the Northern Song Dynasty, in 1102 A.D..Gongzhou was then  given the name Chongqing, which means Repeated Celebration,  in 1190, to record the Prince Zhao Dun of the Southern Song Dynasty of having been the prince of Gong and then emperor of china, the name - Chongqing is carries until today.
  • In 1362, Daxia Kingdom was established at Chongqing.
  • In 1621, Daliang Kingdom was established at Chongqing for a short time.  
  • In 1891, Chongqing became the first inland commerce open port to foreigners, and a customs house was established there.
  • In 1928, a local industrialization program was begun.
  • In 1929, Chongqing was formally declared as a municipality of the Republic of China.
  • In 1937, the Kuomingtang (KMT, Nationalists) moved the government from Nanjing to Chongqing during World War II and was repeatedly bombed by Japanese Air Force.The economic were hampered by mismanagement and corruption of the Nationalists and the military effort was ineffective, these was due to the Nationalists was obsessed fighting with Communists rather than Japanese.
  • In 1940, Chongqing was served as the wartime provisional capital for the Nationalists government, it became China's political, economic, financial, transportation, cultural and diplomatic center.
  • In 1945, Mao Zedong and Chiang Kai-shek conducted a peace talks in Chongqing under U.S. mediation, but the talks failed and the civil war resumed.
  • In 1946, the Nationalists government moved back to Nanjing.
  • In 1949, the Communists Party of China (CPC) and the Southwestern Military and Political Commission were set up in Chongqing.
  • In 1954, Chongqing status was reduced to a provincial city under jurisdiction of Sichuan Province of People's Republic.
  • The rebuilding program begun by the Communists made great progress, however it was setbacks during the Great Leap Forward (1958-60) and the Cultural Revolution (1966-76).
  • In 1983, the government include Chongqing in the first group of cities, its economic planning being supervised by the State Council and formally made it as a foreign trade port.
  • During 1990s, Chongqing was listed as an open city, since the government has been effecting its strategy of developing the Yangtze River.
  • In 1996, Sichuan passed administration over the cities of Wanxian, Fuling and Qianjiang for Chongqing to govern on behalf of the province.

In 1997 March, during the Eighth National People's Congress (NPC), Chongqing was removed from Sichuan province and merged with Wanxian, Fuling and Qianjing. It was promoted to the status of one new Municipality like Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai.

Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: 重庆; Traditional Chinese: 重慶; pinyin: Chngqng; Postal map spelling: Chungching, also Chungking). Formerly (until March 14, 1997) a provincial city within Sichuan Province, the municipality of Chongqing.

Chongqing is said to be the semi-mythical State of Ba that the Ba people supposedly established during the eleventh century BC. By 316 BC, however, it had been overrun by the State of Qin. The Qin emperor ordered a new city to be constructed, called Jiang (江州) and Chu Prefecture (楚州).

Chongqing was subsequently renamed in 581 AD (Sui Dynasty) and 1102, to Yu Prefecture (渝州) and then Gong Prefecture. It received its current name in 1189, after Prince Zhao Dun of the Southern Song Dynasty described his crowning as king and then Emperor Guangzong as a "double/repeated happy celebration" (Simplified Chinese: 双重喜庆; Traditional Chinese: 雙重喜慶; pinyin: shuāngchng xǐqng). Hence Yu Prefecture became Chongqing subprefecture to mark the occasion.

In 1362 (Yuan Dynasty), Ming Yuzhen, a peasant rebel leader, established Daxia Kingdom at Chongqing for a short time.

In 1621, another short-lived kingdom of Daliang was established there.

In 1891, Chongqing became the first inland commerce port open to foreigners.

From 1929, Chongqing became a municipality of the Republic of China. During the Second Chinese-Japanese War (1937-1945), it was Chiang Kai-shek's provisional capital and was heavily bombed by the Japanese Air Force. It holds the distinction of being the most bombed city in history. Many factories and universities were moved from eastern China to Chongqing during the war, transforming it from inland port to a heavy-industrial city.

In 1954, the municipality was reduced to a provincial city within the Sichuan Province of the People's Republic of China.

On March 14, 1997, the Eighth National People's Congress decided to merge the city with the neighboring Fuling, Wanxian, and Qianjiang prefecture-level districts that had it governed on behalf of the province since September 1996. The resulting single division was the Chongqing Municipality, containing 30,020,000 people in forty-three former counties (without intermediate political levels). The municipality became the spearhead of China's effort to develop its western regions and coordinate the resettlement of refugees from the Three Gorges Dam project. Its first official ceremony took place on June 18, 1997.

Geography

Administration type, Municipality. Capital 渝中区 Yuzhong Qu, Largest cityArea 82,300 km (26th).

Chongqing is known as a city of mountains, rivers, and fog.

Chongqing covers an area of 82,400 square kilometers (31, 800 square miles). 

Chongqing is very hilly, it contains mountains like:

  1. Daba Shan (north)
  2. Wu Shan (east)
  3. Wuling Shan (southeast)
  4. Dalou Mountain (south)
     

The major rivers in Chongqing are:

  1. Yangtse River
  2. Jialing River
  3. Wujiang River
  4. Fujiang River
  5. Qijiang River
  6. Daninghe River
     

Chongqing neighbors are:

  1. Hubei and Hunan (east)
  2. Guizhou (south)
  3. Sichuan (west)
  4. Shaanxi (north)
 

Chongqing is the largest of the People's Republic of China's four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China.

With an area of 82,400 sq km, and located on the edge of the Yungui Plateau, Chongqing is intersected by the Jialing River and the upper reaches of the Yangtze. It contains Daba Shan in the north, Wu Shan in the east, Wuling Shan in the southeast, and Dalou Mountain to the south.

Chongqing Municipality is divided into forty county-level subdivisions (three abolished in 1997), consisting of nineteen districts, seventeen counties, and four autonomous counties.

The municipal abbreviation, (Y), was approved by the State Council on April 18, 1997. Chongqing was also a municipality of the old Republic of China. Its abbreviated name is derived from the old name of a part of the Jialing River that runs through Chongqing and feeds the Yangtze.

The urban area of Chongqing proper (重庆市区) has 5 main districts including the district of Yuzhong (渝中区, or "Central Chongqing District"), the central and most densely populated district, where government offices are located. Other districts are Nanan (南岸区, or "Southern Bank District") Jiangbei (江北区, or "North of the River District"), Shapingba (沙坪坝区), Jiulongpo (九龙坡区), and Dadukou (大渡口区).

The municipality is further divided in to 40 county-level subdivisions, 15 districts, 4 county-level cities, and 21 counties.

  • Chongqing is the biggest municipality in China.
     
  • It has the populations of 32,355,000.
     
  • It can be divided into 40 subdivisions: 15 districts, 4 cities and 21 counties
     
  • There are 1502 town and township offices and sub-district offices in the city.
     

Prefecture-level 

County-level            40 divisions

Township-level        1259 divisions

Districts                             Origin          Cities                                 Origin

Banan 巴南区                       Chongqing      Hechuan 合川市                  Chongqing

Beibei 北碚区                       Chongqing      Jiangjin 江津市                    Chongqing

Changshou 长寿区                Chongqing      Yongchuan 永川市               Chongqing

Dadukou 大渡口区                Chongqing      Nanchuan 南川市                 Fuling

Fuling 涪陵区                       Fuling                                                                                                

Jiangbei 江北区                    Chongqing                                                             

Jiulongpo 九龙坡区               Chongqing                                                                                         

Nan'an 南岸区                      Chongqing                                                             

Qianjiang 黔江区                  Qianjiang                                                               

Shapingba 沙坪坝区              Chongqing                                                                                         

Shuangqiao 双桥区               Chongqing                                                             

Wansheng 万盛区                Chongqing

Wanzhou 万州区                   Wanxian                                                  

Yubei 渝北区                        Chongqing                                                                                         

Yuzhong 渝中区                    Chongqing                                               

                                                                                                           

 

Counties                    Origin         Autonomous Counties                  Origin

Bishan 壁山县              Chongqing     Pengshui 彭水苗族土家族自治县      Qianjiang

Chengkou 城口县          Wanxian        Shizhu 石柱土家族自治县                Qianjiang

Dazu 大足县                 Chongqing     Xiushan 秀山土家族自治县              Qianjiang

Dianjiang 垫江县          Fuling           Youyang 酉阳土家族苗族自治县      Qianjiang

Fengdu 丰都县             Fuling                                                                                

Fengjie 奉节县             Wanxian                                                                                                                 

Kai 开县                       Wanxian                                                                             

Liangping 梁平县          Wanxian                                                                             

Qijiang 綦江县              Chongqing                

Rongchang 荣昌县    Chongqing

Tongliang 铜梁县          Chongqing                                                                                                              

Tongnan 潼南县           Chongqing                                                                          

Wulong 武隆县              Fuling

Wushan 巫山县            Wanxian

Wuxi 巫溪县                 Wanxian                                                           

Yunyang 云阳县           Wanxian                                                                             

Zhong 忠县                  Wanxian                                                                             

 

* Indicates with which district the division was associated below prior to the merging of Chongqing, Fuling, Wanxian (now Wanzhou) and Qianjiang in 1997.

Population

Population (2005)            31,442,300 (20th)
Population Density          379/km (10th)

Population: 30.40 million. Nationalities: Han, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Qiang, and Tujia.

Chongqing is the most populous of the People's Republic of China's four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. The Municipality of Chongqing has a registered population of 31,442,300 (2005), with most of them living outside the urban area of Chongqing proper, over hundreds of square kilometres of farmland. The population of the urban area of Chongqing proper was 4.1 million in 2005.

Chongqing is also a multi-cultural city, with about 23 distinct minority cultures. The total population of the minority groups is about 1.75 million. The Tujia and the Miao are the largest two minorities in Chongqing and mainly inhabit the Qianjiang Development District and the Fuling District. In addition to the traditional Chinese festivals such as the Spring Festival and the Mid-autumn Day, the Tujia and Miao people have their own unique folk festivals. Every January 3 to 15 of the lunar calendar, Tujia people hold grand activities of worship, praying and dancing. The Miao people express themselves through singing. The annual Gan Qiu Festival is a traditional festival where Miao people celebrate by singing songs. It is also the time for young people to express their love.

Major nationalities

91% Han
  5% Tuija
  2% Miao
  <1%Tibetan

Climate

Average Temperature: average lowest temperature in winter is 6 to 8C and average highest temperature in summer is 27C to 29C; annual average temperature is around 18C to 20C. Rainfall: long rainy season and plenty rainfall, about 1,200-1,400mm a year; plenty of night rain.

Chongqing belongs to sub-tropical humid monsoon climate zone. Annual average temperature is around 18. Average lowest temperature in winter is 6-8 and average highest temperature in summer is 27-29. There is little frost and snow and much fog all the year round. Features are warm winter, hot summer, early spring and short autumn. Rainfall is plenty, about 1,000-1,400mm a year. There is plenty of night rain when spring is changing into summer, hence the saying "ashan night rains".

  • The annual average temperature of Chongqing is 18C (64F).
    1. Its temperature range is between 6 and 29C.
    2. In January the temperature is 7.5C.
    3. In July the temperature is 28.5C.
       
  • Chongqing climate is semi-tropical.
    1. with two-season monsoonal variations typical of south Asia
    2. with little snow and often mists
    3. with warm winters, hot summers, early springs and short autumns.
       
  • There is plenty of rainfall.
    1. Annual precipitation of Chongqing is from 1000 (39.4 inches) to 1400 (55.12 inches) millimeter.
    2. Daytime precipitation in the urban areas of Chongqing during June 7-11 is 27-40% (light rain).
       
Chongqing's total annual daylight hours is between 1000 and 1200.

Chongqing has a sub-tropical monsoonal climate, with warm winter, hot summer, early spring and short autumn. Annual average temperature is around 19.2C . The average highest temperature is 27-38C  in summer and the extreme temperature can reach as high as 43.8oC. Hence it had got the name of furnace city. The annual average rainfall is above 1000 mm. Chongqing is also called foggy city, for there is much fog from the end of autumn to early spring with at least 68 foggy days a year. Chongqing is also one of the cities with shortest sunshine time in China. The annual sunshine time is 941.9 hours.

Temperature is 24-25C , the average highest temp. 29-29.7C , the average lowest temp. 20.6-21.4C  and the precipitation in the daytime 27-40% (light rain) during June 7-11 in the urban areas of Chongqing.

The climate is semi-tropical, with the two-season monsoonal variations typical of South Asia. It has hot summers, and the temperature can be as high as 40C (102F). Along with Wuhan and Nanjing, it is known as one of the "three furnaces" of China. In the winter, it is wet and warm. While it seldom snows, most days are foggy.

The typically severe fogs were protective during World War II as the city was periodically bombarded by Japanese aircraft; their aircrews were unable to target their bombs accurately. The prevalent black tile roofs of buildings would also tend to blend into the ground colors and so became an effective form of camouflage.

As is true of most of China, the city often experiences severe air pollution, largely as a result of the burning of coal without pollution controls. Coal is burned both for industrial processes and for the production of electric power. Also, due to the surrounding mountains, a lack of wind makes the air pollution in the city even worse.

Tourism

  • There are many interesting places in both urban and rural areas of Chongqing.
     
  • Chongqing city is very attractive at night.
     
  • The best time to visit Chongqing is spring, autumn and winter, because Chongqing has warm winter and hot summer.
     
  • There is a International Travel Festival held in Chongqing every year from May to June.
     
  • One can enjoy and explore the wonderful scenery of the magnificent Three Gorges by traveling along the Changjiang River.
     
  • The Chongqing Museum that located in Loquat Hill is another must-see in Chongqing.
     
  • The Dazu Rock Caving and Nouthern Hot Springs Parks are also very popular and typical for tourist.
     
  • Dazu Grottoes
  • Loquat Hill
  • Northern Hot Springs Park

Chongqing is a city of hills, with many old lanes and buildings worth exploring, cruises up the Yangtze, and a walk around to the Port all worth a half day wander. There is even a cable car ride across the river. Air quality is grim however, and clear days are rare. However, there are cultural spots to visit at the Dazu Stone Carvings, and the Jinro and Simian Mountains amongst others. Your Hotel will be able to arrange guides or tours for you, or ask your local contact for some time to see these.

Chongqing and surrounding areas are full of tourism resources. The most famous is the Three Gorges, a scenic area along Yangtze river. The 200-km long area is the most visited canyon in China. Besides its gorgeous natural scene, it is also a culturally rich area. Other tourism sites include Dazu Rock Carvings, mainly Buddhist themes, it was carved from the Tang Dynasty, now belongs to UNESCO World Heritage.

City sightseeing is also part of Chongqing tourism, with historic World War II sites located in the metropolitan area. Outside the city, Fishing Town marks where the Mongol prince Mongke Khan was defeated in 1243, stopping the Mongol expansion toward Europe and Africa.

The Yangtze River is famous for the picturesque scenery and historical relics along its bank with Chongqing as its starting points of the journey. Floating along the Yangtze River, you can admire the breathtaking scenery created by the mysterious nature. The most famous spots along the Yangtze River are the following: Fengdu(the City of Ghost), Zhong County, Shibaozhai, Zhang Fei Temple, White Emperor City, Fengjie, Qutang Gorge, Wuxia Gorge, Xiling Gorge, and so on.

The city is home to one of the largest public assembly buildings in China, the Great Hall of the People, built in modern times but in the classic Tang Dynasty style - as a large circular building. This is adjacent to the densely populated and hilly central district, with narrow streets and pedestrian only walkways.

Chongqing rich and diversified tourist facilities include over 96 travel agencies, 23 tourist hotels which are entitled to receive foreign guests, 50 other appointed institutions and units that are foreign-related, over 360 deluxe tourist coaches of various kinds.

Chongqing attracts visitors from home and abroad for its cultural heritage and other tourist attractions. The city is the starting point for the Yangtze River Cruise, which explores the stunning scenery of the Three Gorges. Other attractions include the Dazu Rock Carvings , valuable works of art carved during the Ninth Century, Gold Buddhist Mountain, a rich repository of diverse animals and plants; and Fishing Town, one of three ancient battlefields in China. Ancient Ci Qi Kou village lures tourists to linger in its streets to buy handicraft souvenirs.

There is a museum at the World War II headquarters of General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell.

A giant ferris wheel offers spectacular views of the metropolitan area, although it is currently out of action.

Chongqing's port reflects its importance as a major industrial and transport center. Although considerably less busy than 60 years ago, Chaotianmen is nonetheless an interesting place to see a typically busy dock as vessels moored mid-river are loaded and unloaded. The Army of Bamboo-Poles?is now an extraordinary transportation tool between Chaotianmen Dock and the railway station. They are peasants from the suburbs of this city with a bamboo-pole on their shoulder, serving as a porter. Their attitude is always very favorable

The nightview from Nan`An District over the ChangJiang to Yuzhong District, downtown Chongqing with JiefangBei is spectacular. The best way to see the nightview is by taking a cablecar over the ChangJiang. Along the Changjiang riverside there is a boulevard full of restaurants and bars. Visitors can enjoy fried snake or famous Spicy HotPot along the Jangtse River while enjoying the nightview. Another impressive view of the mountain city is from NanShan, At Eling Park, or Yikeshu.

A modern and well stocked zoo exhibits many national and regional animals, including the Giant Panda and the extremely rare South China Tiger. Lying 55km northeast of the city, the Northern Hot Springs are in a large park which is the site of a 5th century Buddhist temple. The springs have an Olympic-size swimming pool where you can breathe to an audience. There are also private rooms with hot baths where you can enjoy the 32C water coming up to your neck or waist.

Economy
Please follow this link for
Summary of Chongqing Economic Statistics

GDP (2005)                CNY 310 billion (24th)

 - per capita                CNY 8,540 (20th)

  • Chongqing is the largest industrial and commercial city in southwestern.
     
  • The GDP per capita of Chongqing was 9038 RMB in 2003,which is ranking number 303 among 659 cities in China.  

Recently, with government policies, Chongqing is planned to be the beachhead for further developing western part of China. This is because Chongqing is located at the head of reservoir behind the Three Gorges Dam. Foreign investment in Chongqing is growing rapidly and it has become a "Gateway to the west".

In 2005, the nominal GDP of Chongqing municipality was 310 billion yuan (US$38.75 billion), a rise of 11.5% year-on-year. Its per capita GDP was 11,068 yuan (US$1,383). The primary, secondary, and tertiary industries of Chongqing were worth 46.342 billion yuan, 125.832 billion yuan, and 134.736 billion yuan respectively.

Historically, Chongqing has been a major trading inland port, transporting goods from the southwestern provinces to eastern China. During the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), Chongqing was transformed into a heavy industrial city, especially the military industry which continued to thrive for decades after 1949. Since the 1980s, many of these military industry enterprises have undergone reforms and turned from producing military goods to mostly civilian products for survival and growth.

In the past twenty-five years, surplus labor resulted a huge number of farmers to migrate to the relatively more developed industrial centers of southern and eastern China for employment opportunities, thus making Chongqing one of the biggest labor export areas in China.

The central government has recently embarked on an economic policy that is aimed to develop western China: the China Western Development strategy. As part of this new plan, the central government has heavily invested in Chongqing's infrastructure and has made a plan for Chongqing to become the "Gateway to the West". Located at the head of the reservoir behind the Three Gorges Dam, Chongqing is planned to be the beachhead for the development of the western part of the country. With the completion of the Three Gorges project, its reservoir will bring ocean going ships to the quays of Chongqing. The hope is that this gritty fogbound megalopolis may become a Chinese Chicago, opening up the interior, shifting the country's centre of gravity west, and kick-starting the economy as did Chicago in the United States of the nineteenth century. Massive public works are currently under way in the city, including overhead and surface commuter rail lines connecting the many districts of the city. Foreign investment in the city is growing at a fast pace. Chongqing is enlarging its commercial sector. New development zones such as the Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ) located north of the downtown district have been established to form Chongqing's modern twenty-first century industrial base.

 

Transport Infrastructure

Chongqing is the biggest inland river port in western China. Historically, most of its transportation, especially to the eastern China is through the Yangtze river.

Also, Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport, located north of Chongqing provides links to most parts of China and to other countries and regions such as Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Thailand.

Now Chongqing is linked to other parts of the country through several railways and highways, including: Chongqing-Chengdu (Sichuan province) railway, Chongqing-Guiyang (Huizhou province) railway, Chongqing-Xiangtan (Hubei province) railway, Chongqing-Huaihua (Hunan province) railway, Chongqing-Suining (Sichuan province) express railway, Wanzhou-Yichang (Hubei province) railway (under construction), Chongqing-Lanzhou (Gansu province) railway (under construction), Chongqing-Chengdu highway, Chongqing-Wanxian highway, Chongqing-Guiyang highway.

The transportation system in the metropolitan area is also being developed to modern standards. Due to its hilly geography and Yangtze and Jialing rivers which run through it, ground transportation in the city requires an unusual number of bridges and tunnels, which increases cost dramatically. The highway network around the city and to nearby satellite towns is almost completed. In Chongqing itself, massive public works have begun, including rail lines connecting the numerous districts of the city. Chongqing Light Railway system was completed and entered service in January 2005. One unique form of transportation in the city are the cable cars which are suspended over the rivers.

Natural Resources and Products

Chongqing is rich in natural resources, with more than forty kinds of minerals. Its coal reserves are estimated to be 4.8 billion tonnes. The Chuandong Natural Gas Field in Chongqing is China's largest inland production base of natural gas, with deposits of 270 billion m, accounting for more than one-fifth of China's total. Chongqing also contains Chinas largest reserve of strontium, and China has the second largest reserve of the mineral in the world. Important industries in Chongqing include mining, iron, steel, aluminum, military, auto, motorcycle, chemical, textiles, machinery, electronics, building materials, food processing, retail, and tourism. Chongqing is also home to Asia's largest aluminum plant, South West Aluminium, which rolled out 213,000 tonnes of finished products in 2004 for companies engaged in building materials, printing, electrical appliances, aerospace, packaging, and vehicle production.

Food and Agribusiness

Chongqing is one of China's regions with rich biological species. Chongqing has over 2,000 species of plants incluidng more than 1,700 species of sub-tropical trees in Jingyuanshan. Rare plants such as metasequoia, Baile tree, Feier tree are protected species. There are more than 30 species of trees, more than 1,000 species of arbor and 17 species of bamboo. Particularly famous are the four unique of Jingshan Mountain (white China fir, giant azalea tree, broad leaf tea and square bamboo shoot). Chongqing is also one of China's important producing bases for crude Chinese medicines. Output of coptis root, Chinese gall, honeysuckle flower, magnolia bark, yellow-corktree bark and eucommia bark ranks the first in China. Cultivated plants amount to 560 kinds.

Major grain crops are rice, corn, wheat and sweet potatoes with rice as the major crop. Economic crops are mainly rapeseeds, peanuts, tung oil, lacquer, tea, silkworm cocoon, sugar cane, jute, bluish dogbane and tobacco. Fruits are mainly citrus, orange, peach and plum. Citrus is most famous. Chongqing's animal resources amount to 380 species. Rare wild animals are crown deer, wood musk, civet, panther, otter, macaque, golden pheasant and etc. Raised animals amount to over 60 species, live hog, goat, ox and rabbit are prominent species. Rongchang is the nation's famous producing base for studhogs, and Shizhu is a famous base to raise, process and export long hair rabbits. Chongqing has over 120 river fishes. Fish farming is popular in every district and county. Changshouhu Lake and Dahonghu Lake are fish farming bases of Chongqing. 

Wine and Beer

 

Fishing

 

Mining

 

Industry (Follow this link for statistics on: Major Industries in Chongqing (2002)

Chongqing is one of the old industrial bases in China, where three mainstay industries have taken shape, i. e., machine-building industry with automobile and motorcycle manufacture as the principal part, chemical industry laying emphasis on natural gas chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry, and metallurgical industry represented by quality steels and aluminum materials, in addition to another four preponderant sectors, namely electronic information, foodstuff, building material and daily-use chemical product sectors, which have been fostered.

 

Chongqing Cultures

Ethnic groups: Han, Tibetan, Miao, Yi, Qiang, You and Tujia.
Language: Chongqing locals speak the dialect of Southern Mandarin Chinese.
Food: Hotpot is the number one specialty in Chongqing, which is famous for its hot spicy taste, fresh and tender. Different meat like fish, pork, chicken and vegetable like bean sprout and scallion are used in a bubbling pot of soup or spiced oil.
With the history of more than 3000 years, the culture of Ba and Yu is a component part of the culture in Chongqing.
Most people there are straightforward, enthusiastic, humor and generous.
Many elders in Chongqing are likely to watch the Sichuan opera.
Media: Chongqing is served by the Chongqing People's Broadcast Station, a television station.With numerous of sports facilities and parks, the major activities in Chongqing are sports and recreation.
Women in Chongqing like to gather and exercise the Yangge dance and Yaogo dance on an open ground in town, this has turned out to be a popular street scenes in Chongqing.
Teahoses with various styles can be seen everywhere in Chongqing, and is popular for families, friends and dating
City trees: the Evergreen Magnolia (magnolia delavayi) and alternatively Ficus lacor
City flower
山茶花 Camellia (Camellia japonica)
Art and Crafts: Chongqing has traditional handcraft made from bamboo.

 

Chongqing's Acclamations

 

Astronomical phenomena

The previous total solar eclipse as seen from downtown Chongqing was the solar eclipse of June 26, 1824. The next will be the solar eclipse of July 22, 2009.

Chongqing's Sister Cities

Flag of United StatesWashington, D.C., USA
Flag of GermanyDsseldorf, Germany
Flag of United StatesSeattle, USA
Flag of JapanHiroshima, Japan
Flag of JapanMito, Ibaraki, Japan
Flag of CanadaToronto, Canada
Flag of AustraliaBrisbane, Australia
Flag of FranceToulouse, France
Flag of EnglandLeicester, England
Flag of United StatesDetroit, Michigan, USA

 

Source for population and GDP data:
《中国统计年鉴2005 China Statistical Yearbook 2005
ISBN 7503747382
Source for nationalities data:
2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》 Tabulation on nationalities of 2000 population census of China
ISBN 7105054255
As at December 31, 2004

 

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